There are different means of transport to or away from Sudan such as airplanes, buses, trains, and traveling by ship. Also, there are several land entrances linking Sudan with its neighboring countries. Following is some information about these modes.
AIR TRAVEL: Sudan Airways
Sudan Airways is one of the earliest aviation companies in Africa and the Middle East. It was established originally as a unit of Sudan Railways Department to provide transport to the inaccessible areas in Sudan. Domestic flights commenced in July 1947. The company flew its first international flight in 1954 to Cairo. Sudan Airways is a member of the international Aviation Transport Association (IATA), Arabic Association for Air Transport and Africa Airlines Companies Association. There are several foreign airlines companies serving in Sudan to different parts of the World.
MARINE LINES & RIVER TRANSPORT
Traveling by sea and river are considered as convenient means of transport for there relative cheapness and comfort.
LAND ENTRANCES TO SUDAN
Traveling by land is one other major means of transport especially for traffic between Sudan and its neighboring countries. Customs and immigration check points on the borders of Sudan and these countries are found to facilitate the passage of travelers and goods. The main land routs used presently are:
- Sudan, Central Africa:
Um Dafoug: in the extreme south of Darfour is the main border checkpoint for passage between Sudan and Central Africa. From Um Dafoug a land track leads to Nyala, the largest town in the region.
- Sudan, Chad:
El Geneina: on the Sudanese side and Adri on the Chadian side represent the main passage between the two countries. They are linked together by a land track. A Sudanese customs checkpoint is located in El Geneina.
- Sudan Eritrea:
There are several lands in trances between Sudan and Eritrea of which the tow main once are:
Kassala: it's joined to the Eritreain Town of Tasanay by means of a land route. There is a customs checkpoint at Kassala.
Garroara: which is a town on the northern frontier divided into tow sides; A Sudanese and an Eritrian one having the same name?
- Sudan, Libya:
Mount. Ouwainaat: It represents the borderline between Sudan and Libya. It's a connected to tow major Sudanese towns by land tracks; first through the desert to Dongola with and approximate distance of . km. And second to Kutum in north Darfour with and approximate distance of .km. A Sudanese customs checkpoint is located at 50 km from Ouwainaat.
Halayiib: It's a Sudanese customs checkpoint with a land road leading to the Elsuez via Shalateen and Abu ramad. Halayiib is connected to Port Sudan by means of a land track. Distance between Halayiib,Port Sudan is.. Km.
TRAVELING IN SIDE SUDAN
To travel in side Sudan, and because of its hugeness, all means transport whether by land, river or by Air, are in use traveling by land is easier now a days because of the construction of thousands of km of highways. Also Sudan Airways has its net work of domestic flights covering large area of Sudan. Rail with a net work of railway lines extended to most parts of the country.
SUDAN RAIL WAYS
The reason for the construction of rail ways from Wadi-Halfa in the north to the interior of Sudan at the turn of the century was to facilitate the advance of the Anglo-Egyptian army, led by lord Kitchener and in establishing its supply lines. The railway road to Khartoum was completed before the year of 1930 and it was the first mechanical means of transport introduced in Sudan. After fulfilling its military missions, Sudan railways was turned in to a civil Government Department commuting passengers and the freight. The town of Atbara, located at the confluence of the Atbara River and the Nile north Sudan, was made a home base and headquarters of Sudan railways. Travelers may make their reservations at Khartoum, Atbara and Wadi Halfa Rail Stations. In addition to passengers transport, Sudan rail ways is substantially contributing in promoting income and out come trade via Port Sudan and the river berth of Wadi Halfa, where as the cost of freight transport by rail way in the minimum.
REGULAR RAIL WAY LINES AND TOWN COVERED:
Al obeid, Kosti, Sennar-Medani-Khartoum (travels duration 24 hours),
Karima-Abu hamed-Atbara-Shendi,,,Khartoum (travels duration 30 hours)
Port Sudan Atbara Shendi Khartoum (travels duration 24 hours)
Wadi Halfa Abu hamed Atbara Shendi Khartoum (travel duration 24 hours)
No asphalt motor ways were constructed in Sudan during the colonial rule. The first motor way, connecting Khartoum to Wadi Medani, was lid after Sudan gained independence, the period 1957 to 1964.
- Khartoum Atbara: this was lid last four years and spans 306 km. It's the first asphalt motor way to be constructed on the east of the Nile in a north ward direction from Khartoum. The archeological sites of the ancient kingdom of Morie are located along its path, north are south of Shendi, at Elbagrawiya, Elnaqa"a and Musawarat.
- Khartoum-Damazeen: the span of this motor way is approximately 550 km. It's run through the major agricultural production areas of Gezira, Sinaar, Sindga and Damazeen.
- Khartoum Elobeid: Span of this motor way is 719 km, heading southwards through the western side of Gezira along the White Nile. The motor way links several towns of the White Nile and the Kurdufan State.
- Khartoum Kadugli: This has span of 900 km and connects Khartoum to the capital of south Kurdufan state. Kadugli. Located along its pass are the towns Um Ruwaba, Rahad, Eldebeibat, dillin and lastly, Kadugli.
- Khartoum Port Sudan: the stretch of this motor way, including the Khartoum-Wadi Medani section is 1190 km. Traverses in aselimi, circle through Gazera, Gedarif, Kassala and Port Sudan state, passing by many major towns and terminating at Port Sudan.
- Nyala-Kass-Zalingei: this motor way connects Nyala town, the capital of south Darfour state to the towns Kass and Zalingei in the high land region of Jebel Marra through distance of 210 km. Additionally, there are hard, surface land routs that are passable year, round.
Among these are:
Umdurman-Dongola-Karma Elnuzul-Abri-Wadi Halfa Karima-Karma ElnuzulUmdurman-Dongola-Elowainaat on the Sudanese-Libyan border these track traverses the northern desert plains and its use has significantly increased in resent years with the increase in commercial and the passenger traffic between the two countries. They're also seasonal tracks, which become impassible during the rainy season starting from Jun through September. All are located below 14 degrees latitude.
Among the most significant of these are:
Khartoum,, New Halfa, which cross the Butana Region umdurman Elobied El fasher Umkaddada, Elgeneina-Across the desert territories of Kurdufan and Darfour state Damazeen-Kurnuk-geissan in the Blue Nile State. Kosti-Gabalein-Rank-Malakal-Juba Which can be used,Provided good security condition,,, during the southern dry season from November through February. Nyala-Hufrat Elnias, Um Dafoug on the border with the Central African Republic. Juba, Yei,Maridi Juba,Amadi,Rumbek,Wau.